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The Flatmates
Language Point 64: Linking Words

Linking words and phrases

Linking words and phrases are used to show relationships between ideas. They can be used to join 2 or more sentences or clauses (a clause is a group of words which contains a subject and a verb).

Linking words/phrases can be used to add ideas together, contrast them, or show the reason for something. 



Adding ideas and information

Also
This is used to give more information or ideas. It can be put at the beginning of a sentence, or between the subject and the verb.

We are unable to repair this watch. Also, this is the fourth time this has happened.

I want to be an astronaut. I also want to be a biologist. What should I do?


Besides/Besides this/Besides that
This is usually placed at the beginning of a sentence. It is used to make an additional point.

Traffic congestion is a problem in my city. Besides this, the trains are very expensive.

I can't afford to go to the concert. Besides, I don't really like classical music.


As well as this/that
This is very similar to besides/besides this/besides that . It is usually placed at the beginning of a sentence. It is used to make an additional point.

My boss is the only other person who sells the watches. As well as that, he might blame me.

We went to the park today. As well as that, we did some shopping.

For information about 'and', 'as well as', 'in addition to', go to the Flatmates episode 25



Showing reasons

As and since are used to introduce the reason for something. They are similar in meaning and use to 'because'. They can be placed at the beginning of the sentence, or in the middle.

As
As the watch you have returned is not genuine, we are unable to repair it.

We are unable to repair the watch you have returned as it is not genuine.

Since
Since the watch you have returned is not genuine, we are unable to repair it.

We are unable to repair the watch you have returned since it is not genuine.



Showing results

Consequently and as a consequence are linking words which link reasons with results. They are common in formal writing.

Consequently
This is the fourth time that this has happened and, consequently, we can't accept further watches from you.

This is the fourth time that this has happened. Consequently, we can't accept further watches from you.

As a consequence
This is the fourth time that this has happened and, as a consequence, we can't accept further watches from you.

This is the fourth time that this has happened. As a consequence , we can't accept further watches from you.

For information about ' so', 'because' and 'because of' go to the Flatmates episode 25



Contrasting ideas:

Despite and in spite of
These are followed by nouns or gerunds (verb + 'ing'). They are not followed by clauses (subject + verb).

Despite losing the match, the team were happy with their efforts.

In spite of the lost match , the team were happy. (meaning: they lost the match but they were happy anyway)

If you want to use a clause with despite and in spite of, you need to add 'the fact that '.

Despite the fact that they lost the match, the team were still happy.

In spite of the fact that they lost , the team were still happy.


While and whereas are used to contrast two opposite ideas in one sentence . These words can be placed at the beginning of the sentence or in the middle.

While London is exciting, it is much too busy.

Life in the city is fast, whereas life in the countryside is slow.

For information about ‘ but', 'however', and 'although' go to the Flatmates episode 25



Vocabulary:

genuine (adj)
real and authentic - not a fake or forgery

further watches
more watches

curious (adj)
you want to know more about something




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